The rosary, also known as Mary's Psalter, is a very old form of prayer and a way of meditating on the life of Jesus Christ and His Passion. It consists of 15 decades, each decade with its own meditation or 'mystery'. Pope John Paul II suggested the Luminous Mysteries in 2002 which follow Jesus' ministry. The full 20 mysteries are, the Joyful (which follow Christ from conception to young adulthood), the Luminous (aforementioned), the Sorrowful (following His Passion) and the Glorious Mysteries (His Resurrection and afterward).
Some people pray a rosary of 5 decades per day, following a schedule of the mysteries, (Joyful on Mondays and Saturdays, Sorrowful on Tuesdays and Fridays, Glorious on Wednesdays and Sundays, Luminous on Thursdays) and some will pray the entire 15-20 decades daily (the traditional rosary consists of the 15 and the Lumious are optional).
Although, since praying the rosary is as gazing on the face of Christ, why wouldn't you want to include all 20?
With a pocket rosary, such as below, having only one decade of Hail Mary's and one Our Father, you would simply repeat until the desired number of decades have been completed.
On a traditional rosary there are 3 additional Hail Mary beads following the Apostle's Creed on the crucifix and first Our Father bead. Most rosaries (with the exception of a 15 or 20 decade set of beads) consist of 5 decades, a total of 53 Hail Mary beads and 6 Our Father beads.
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